Tachikawa has been studying the connection between design and language, and he believes the source of human creativity comes from language. And the key to the evolution of living things is the mutation of the DNA which is very similar to language.
DNA copying errors can be likened to the mispronunciation and mishearing of language. Based on this assumption, Tachikawa theorizes that evolution and creativity produce similar patterns of mutation.
Similar patterns found in the evolution of living things are also evident in diverse human inventions and cultures. Evolutional Creativity applies these similar patterns to the creative process. The errors resulting in new ideas are categorized into nine types.
By using the nine mutation patterns of Variate, Disappear, Integrate, Reverse, Separate, Substitute, Assimilate, Transit, and Proliferate as tools from a toolbox, we can generate a large number of coincidental errors to create many ideas in a short amount of time. These are mutated ideas.
So how do we select a good idea from these types of errors? In the natural world, we can observe how living things make selections to adapt to their environment. If we learn from the natural scientist's long-refined approach to observing the natural world, we might be able to select adaptative ideas.
While studying different observation methods in the natural sciences, Tachikawa noticed that there were only four perspectives encompassing both time and space. Each one was an established, biological observation system.
The four perspectives are Anatomy to understand internal parts, Ecosystem to understand the external environment, Lineage to understand the development of the genealogy, and Prediction to contemplate the future with the two Forecast and Backcast approaches. He systematized these four Adaptative methods and named them Spatial-Temporal Learning. By analyzing the conditions through these four perspectives encompassing time and space, we can understand how society is pressured into making the inevitable choices it makes. We can then counter them accordingly by selecting solid ideas.